Anti-slavery literature began to appear about 1820. Abolitionist press produced newspapers, periodicals, sermons, children's books, speeches, abolitionist society reports, handbills, and memoirs of former slaves.
The anti-abolitionist handbill below demonstrates the depth of pro-slavery feeling.
In St. Louis, a numbness closed around the hearts of Eliza and Portia Shepheard.
Eliza had changed. Many years after she and Jim had fallen in love, abandonment had made her old at thirty-one and more compassionate of other people’s sorrow. She missed her youth...
Certificate of Freedom of Harriet Bolling (1851) in Petersburg, Virginia
This certificate of renewal states that Harriet Bolling was freed by James Bolling on 14 May 1842. It says that Harriet Bolling, "a free woman of color"... is now of the following discription (sic), to wit: four feet 9 1/2 inches high, about forty two years of age, of a mulatto complexion, has some spots or splotches on each oh his (sic) cheeks, a scar on his (sic) left wrist occasioned by a cut". Freeborn blacks could stay in Virginia, but emancipated blacks were generally required to leave the state. This document states that the court allowed Harriet Bolling "to remain in this Commonwealth and reside in Petersburg".
(From the Carter G Woodson Collection at the Library of Congress)